Tag Archives: Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh

Brahmin Terrorist send a threat to Jayalalithaa and Narendra Modi in the name of Al-Qaeda

27 Jul

Hindu terrorist Ramagopalan

A letter posted from Chennai to this pilgrim town on Wednesday warned of a bomb attack by the al-Qaeda on two of Kerala’s most popular temples – the Guruvayoor and Sree Padmanabha Swamy shrines, police said.

It claimed to be from the al-Qaeda and also mentioned that Gujarat chief minister Narendra Modi and Tamil Nadu chief minister J Jayalaalitha would be assassinated in the coming days.

The letter was in English and was addressed to the Guruvayoor circle inspector here.

As soon as the letter arrived, police officials rushed to the famed Sree Krishna Temple near here along with a bomb squad and made a detailed inspection in the temple compound and also in the temple town.

The other shrine mentioned in the letter is the Sree Padmanabha Swamy temple in Thiruvananthapuram, which has lately been in the news worldwide after the discovery of rare jewellery, rubies and diamonds stored in a vault which had not been opened for 150 years.

Ever since the news, the temple has been under heavy security with every devotee entering the temple being frisked. But after the letter threat, top police officials are leaving nothing to chance.

Police say further investigations into the letter are on.

Peoples Opinion:

  • Al-Qaeda is not functioning in Tamilnadu, Because each and every muslims is treated equally in tamilnadu, tamil muslims and hindus are like uncles and brother-in-laws.
  • If this letter shows modi only means, we can say 100% its Al-Qaeda work (he send the letter). But Tamil Nadu chief minister J Jayalaalitha name is included, ahhhhhhhhhhh
  • chief minister J Jayalaalitha is a mother for all muslims, who realeased muslim prisoner and he came to power with the help of muslim parties.
  • Many muslims like chief minister J Jayalaalitha, So its confirm that this letter was posted by hindu terrorist like Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (or) Hindu munnani (or) Hindu Makkal Katchi.

2 Hindu terrorist dead while making a bomb

26 Mar

Chennai: Two Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) activists were killed in a crude bomb explosion in the politically sensitive district of Kannur in northern Kerala on Monday. The incident occurred around 7 am at Cheruvancherry, near Thalassery town.

Officers at Kannavam police station said they received news about the blast from locals around 7.30 am, following which they rushed to the spot.

“The crude bomb went off while the two were assembling it at a grove near a well behind a temple at Cheruvancherry,” said police sources.

The deceased were identified as C Dileepan alias Dileesh, 28 of Poovathinkeezhil and P Pradeepan, 28. The bodies were dismembered beyond recognition and parts of Dileepan’s body recovered from the well. Kannavam Sub Inspector of Police K V Pramodan said top police officers, including the Inspector General of Police and SP are camping at the spot.

“The bodies have been sent to Kozhikode Medical College hospital for post mortem. We’ve intensified patrolling in the area and are on the lookout for explosives. It’s too early to comment on why the men were assembling a bomb,” said S Sreejith, superintendent of police, Kannur.

The incident has shocked the police, who were on the hunt for Islamic Jihadis in Kannur district and elsewhere in the state. Following the recent arrests of terror suspects from the district, Kannur was also referred to in some media reports as the Azamgarh of Kerala.

Ironically, Monday’s blast occurred even as Kerala Home Minister Kodiyeri Balakrishnan told reporters upon his return from the US that the state government would deal strictly with all forms of religious terrorism.

One of the Deceased was accused in a blast case

Pradeepan was the sixth accused in the Ashna case. The six-year-old from Cheruvancheri had lost her leg when a bomb was thrown at her during CPM-RSS clash in 2000. Ashna’s badly injured leg had to be amputated. The Thalasserry fast track court had deferred pronouncing the verdict in the Ashna case to November 14.

RSS leader involved in Ajmer blast conspiracy: Police

23 Oct
Moinuddin Chishti Dargah in Ajmer, India

Image via Wikipedia

Jaipur, Oct 23 (IANS):  A senior Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) leader was present when the conspiracy to carry out a blast at the shrine of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti in Ajmer was hatched, according to the charge-sheet filed in the case.

However, the RSS leader Indresh Kumar has not been named as accused in the charge-sheet filed by the Rajasthan Police’s Anti-Terrorist Squad in an Ajmer court Friday.

Holding supporters of radical Hindu group Abhinav Bharat responsible for the Oct 11, 2007 blast, in which three people were killed and 30 injured, the ATS has charged Devendra Gupta, Lokesh Sharma, Chander Shekhar Lave, Sandeep Dange and Ramji Kalsangre with murder, attempt to murder, conspiracy, harming or defiling place of worship and other crimes.

Gupta, Sharma and Lave are in judicial custody while Dange and Kalsangre are absconding.

Another accused, Sunil Joshi, died during the course of investigation.

The 806-page charge sheet says that the conspiracy for the bomb blast was hatched during a meeting held in room number 26 of Gujarati Samaj Guesthouse situated near MI Road in Jaipur Oct 21, 2005. The accused had checked in under false names.

According to the charge sheet, Indresh Kumar was present at the secret meeting in which six other functionaries of the outfit were also present.

‘Indresh suggested that they attach themselves to some religious organisation so that they can pass themselves off as pilgrims,’ the charge-sheet says.

Swami Asinanand of Abhinav Bharat Sangthan and Sadhvi Pragya of Jai Vande Matram Sangthan were also present in the meeting where not only was the conspiracy hatched but different tasks were also assigned to some of the conspirators, the ATS said.

‘Indresh has so far not been made an accused in the case as further investigation are required, but he seems to be a conspirator,’ a source in the ATS said.

According to the ATS, the bombs were made in Indore and the area where the bombs were to be planted were identified in a meeting held in Dang area of Gujarat between Feb 11 and 13, 2007.

Take decisive action against Hindutva terrorism

7 Aug

New Delhi, July 17: Investigations into the Makkah Masjid, Ajmer Sharif and Malegaon terror attacks appear to be exposing the true face of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. Though the RSS has posed as the custodian of Indian nationalism, it has, in fact, sought to undermine the core values of the republic.

The inspiration behind the RSS was not Indian nationalism and not even Hindu religion, but Italian fascism. BS Moonje, the mentor of RSS founder KB Hedgewar, and the brain behind the RSS, conceptualised the organisation on the lines of Benito Mussolini’s Blackshirts. A great admirer of the Italian dictator, Moonje even visited him in 1931.

It is the same fascist inspired deviant nationalism that drove a group of ex- RSS members like Nathuram Godse to assassinate Mahatma Gandhi. The role of the RSS in the Mahatma’s assassination has been clearly established by the Jivan Lal Kapur Commission. The involvement of RSS members in the recent terror attacks— including the alleged role of senior leader Indresh Kumar— is a manifestation of the same deviant, if not pervert, nationalism.

The big danger of Hindutva terror is in its attempt to disguise itself as nationalist even while attacking the very foundations of the republic: secularism and democracy. In this context there is need to investigate a security conclave organised by Mr Kumar in which officials, perhaps retired, from the military, security agencies and the administrative services participated.

The law enforcement agencies should not be taken in by the nationalistic pose adopted by Hindutva extremists. But more importantly, they need to be combated politically rather than through some administrative ban or sanctions. There is need for quick and decisive action on the part of like- minded political parties, civil society and the administration to check this cancer.

Aware of Hindu outfits’ role in blasts

7 Aug

New Delhi, July 17: The government said on Friday that it was aware that elements in certain right wing Hindu outfits were allegedly involved in terror activities in the country.

“We are aware about that,” Union Home Secretary Gopal K Pillai told journalists when asked about reports that elements in certain right wing Hindu outfits were allegedly involved in some bomb explosions in the country.

Pillai, however, did not specify which outfits were involved in such acts.

The CBI, which is probing into the Mecca Masjid and Ajmer blast cases, has recently said that the agency did not question any RSS functionary during the probe.

Central Bureau of Investigation Director Ashwani Kumar had said that the reports about the agency questioning Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh leaders in connection with the terror attacks in Mecca Masjid and Ajmer were not correct.


The Danger of Hindutva Terrorism to Secular India

7 Aug

Image via Wikipedia

Last year in the village of Manoharpur, India, a mob of Hindu supremacists burned to death Australian missionary Graham Stewart Staines and his two young sons. The mainstream U.S. media, which typically casts its jaded gaze on that part of the world only to report death tolls after typhoons, bus, or train disasters, responded predictably. But while the American public generally responds to news from this part of the world with a bewildered shrug, the response to this story was one of collective, visceral, revulsion. For many Americans, still reeling from another horrific event that recently occurred on their own soil – the Texas dragging death of James Byrd Jr. – the story put India squarely on the map, bringing a grotesque culmination to preceding weeks of church-burnings and rumors of anti-Christian hatred.

More than twenty months have now passed since the Staines murder, and South Asia has once again retreated to the periphery of American awareness. Yet the violence against the Christian minority in India continues unabated. And while the government of Prime Minister A. B. Vajpayee responds ambivalently to this crisis, its cohorts in the religious right do not — organizations such as the Shiv Sena (“Army of God”) and Vishwa Hindu Parishad (“World Hindu Council”) continue to put forth divisive and inflammatory propaganda, with tangible and far-reaching results. Whether by parliamentary bill to restrict “mixed faith” marriages, state-sanctioned “reconversion” campaigns or the movement to rewrite the history of India as an unalloyed Hindu “Zion,” religious nationalism is reshaping the national agenda of the world’s largest democracy.

This brand of religious revivalism – Hindutva as it is known – has the dimensions of a sustained movement with ambitions of political and cultural reform. Its rhetoric of Hindu supremacy, virulent with the demonization of minorities and exaggerated threats to national identity, resonates among many members of the conservative upper and middle classes. This growing grassroots support has emboldened the movement and placed its ideologies into public office, from local government to Parliament. Even Rabindra Pal (“Dara”) Singh, the man accused of organizing the Staines murder, is now considering a bid for public office.

Representatives of the movement offer little regret for the Staines murders or the other acts of religious hatred that have plagued the country. Instead of unequivocally condemning the violence, mouthpieces for outfits like the VHP indignantly retort that Christian missionaries are waging a campaign to deculturalize “Hindu” India by perpetrating “forced conversions” of its poorest, and most vulnerable, communities. VHP Vice President Giriraj Kishore, for example, has publicly maligned men like Staines as “traitors” and “desecrators of Hindu gods”, implying in essence that violence against them is an act of cultural self defense. In other words, they’re getting what they deserve.

Meanwhile, the Vajpayee government publicly condemns the communal violence but is reticent when it comes to assigning responsibility. Vajpayee prefers to rationalize the killings, beatings, and church bombings as aberrations or “isolated events,” and fidgets away from any suggestion that blame should be laid at the feet of VHP or its militant affiliates, whose members have been clearly implicated in several cases. This is no surprise, as Vajpayee’s BJP (“Indian People’s Party”) is considered the parliamentary arm of the Hindutva movement.

Evidence has supposedly been uncovered that links some recent incidents with operatives of Pakistan’s intelligence services, whose mission, presumably, is to embarrass India among its democratic peers. Such claims may take the heat off Vajpayee for the time being, but if true they should be more cause for alarm than vindication, because they suggest that the social unrest wrought by Hindutva extremism is so disruptive that it has invited exploitation by India’s military rival. The divisiveness of Hindu supremacy, then, may not only be dangerous to India’s democratic institutions, but to its national security as well. But such considerations may be lost on the radical right, for whom Pakistan is frequently invoked as a source of the nation’s ills. Now, with a convenient circle of logic, not only can the enemies of India be blamed for the campaign of “forced conversions,” but can be likewise accused of the ongoing campaign of vigilante “justice.”

Ultimately, it is in its definition of “enemy” versus “Indian” where Hindutva reveals its true colors, for at root is the assertion that the only “true” Indians are Hindus, while all others – particularly Muslims and Christians – are not. The latter religions, termed “semitic” according to the Hindutva theory of history, are alien faiths imposed from the outside on “Hindu India” by foreign aggressors. Such exclusionism makes Hindutva, at its philosophical core, not merely “nationalistic” but supremacist. And any ideology that defines nationhood – with the concomitant rights and enfranchisement that this implies – by membership in a privileged race, culture, or religion, is nothing less than fascist.

This label is not applied glibly. The philosophical parent of the Hindutva movement, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (“National Volunteers Union”), is an ideological organization that has an influence upon domestic conservative politics comparable to that of the U.S.’s Christian Coalition. The head of the RSS during the Gandhi era, Madhav Golwalkar, once famously praised Hitler for showing the world “how well nigh impossible” it is for different races and cultures, “having differences going to the root,” to be assimilated into a national whole. The purging by Germany of the “semitic Races,” Golwalkar goes on to say, is a “good lesson for us in Hindusthan [India] to learn and profit by.”

Such statements of course are not widely publicized, though Golwalkar is still highly respected in Hindutva circles. One need only read pro-Hindutva literature, however, to find that the spirit of his remarks is still alive and well. While downplaying the “petty differences” of creed and race on one hand, or claiming that only nationalism is the “religion” of Hindutva, the RSS for instance goes on to assert that in a “free and prosperous India” Muslims and Christians would “naturally return” to their “ancient faith and traditions.” The message is quite clear – in an India free of constitutional “appeasements” of religious minorities and vigilant in cleansing the nation of the polluting influences of foreign missionaries, converts to “alien” faiths will naturally recognize the superiority of Hinduism, and re-embrace it. Those without the wisdom to do so would be suspect, and thus worthy of second-class citizenship – or worse.

During the last century a diaspora of Indian émigrés spread their culture to communities as far afield as Johannesburg and Jackson Heights; at the beginning of this century Indian cuisine, music, literature, and film enjoy an unprecedented popularity abroad. That Indian culture not only competes with but also penetrates the commercial monolith of Western culture testifies to its modern robustness and vitality. For its part, the religion called “Hinduism” – the amorphous family of traditions and philosophies that comprise historical reality, and not the neo-orthodoxy of the Hindutva movement – will continue to endure by virtue of its inherent inclusiveness, tolerance, and its unique recognition that no creed has a monopoly over truth.

No, the likes of Graham Staines or his converts do not pose a credible threat to India or her culture. The true danger thrives in the demagogues of the religious right, their proselytes, and the creed of bigotry they pander in the name of cultural revival.

Gujarat riot and saffron, hindutva and brahmin terrorism role

30 Sep

First-hand accounts from the men who plotted and executed the genocide in Ahmedabad, Vadodara and Sabarkantha. Mayhem was meticulously planned and carried out by VHP-Bajrang Dal cadres across Muslim localities.


NARENDRA MODI visited Godhra on the day of the burning of coach S-6 of the Sabarmati Express. His outburst provided the first sign to Sangh workers that the time to corner the Muslims had come

THAT VERY NIGHT, top BJP and Sangh leaders met at Ahmedabad, Vadodara and Godhra, and gave the green signal for an all-out assault on Muslims across the state

A STRATEGY was devised on how to shield the attackers from the law after the riots. Prominent lawyers were briefed and senior police officers taken into confidence. The cadres were told Modi was squarely behind them

THE MOBILISATION of the under castes, something the Sangh had been engaged in for years, dovetailed into the deep penetration Hindutva already had among Gujarat’s higher castes. Godhra provided the perfect spark to fuse them together

FROM THE very outset, the police played partisan, often joining the mobs. Officers who tried to do their duty found their hands tied. The complicity was led by then Ahmedabad Commissioner PC Pandey, who ensured compliance by a swathe of junior officers

WEAPONS, FROM BOMBS to guns to trishuls, were either manufactured and distributed by Sangh workers themselves, or smuggled through Sangh channels from all over India. The Bajrang Dal and the VHP already had a large cache of firearms and daggers

BJP AND SANGH LEADERS led the bloodthirsty mobs through Ahmedabad’s bylanes, Sabarkantha’s villages, Vadodara’s localities. The police stood guard to the mayhem

BJP MLA MAYABEN KODNANI drove around Ahmedabad’s Naroda locality all day, directing the mobs. VHP leaders Atul Vaid and Bharat Teli did the same at the Gulbarg Housing Society. None of them ever went to jail

FIRE WAS THE MOST FAVOURED weapon in the rioters’ hands. That cremation is considered un-Islamic fuelled their frenzy to burn. Petrol and kerosene were lavishly used, as were the victims’ own gas cylinders

BABU BAJRANGI reveals he collected 23 revolvers from Hindus in Naroda Patiya. He called VHP general secretary Jaideep Patel 11 times and informed Gordhan Zadaphia, the then minister of state for home, about the death toll

GOVERNMENT COUNSEL before the Nanavati-Shah Commission, Arvind Pandya, himself worships Modi and describes Justice Shah as “our man”. Nanavati’s own report on the 1984 anti-Sikh riots is gathering dust till today.

A Cold Eclipse

THERE WAS no spontaneity to what happened in Gujarat post- Godhra. This was no uncontrived, unplanned, unprompted communal violence. This was a pogrom. This was genocide.

In a planned, coldly strategic manner, Muslim neighbourhoods across both urban and rural Gujarat were targeted. Large sections of Hindus were united under a single objective: to kill Muslims, wherever and by whatever means, preferably by first stabbing and mutilating them, and then by setting on fire what remained, whether dead or alive. During the course of the TEHELKA sting, many accused said they preferred burning Muslims alive over other forms of death since cremation is considered unacceptable in Islam.

For three days after the February 27 fire on the Sabarmati Express at Godhra, Gujarat’s BJP government receded from public view and let the armed mercenaries of Hindu organisations take over. For three days, absolute anarchy reigned. Execution squads were formed, composed of the dedicated cadre of Hindu organisations — the Vishwa Hindu Parishad, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, the Bajrang Dal, the Kisan Sangh, the Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad and the Bharatiya Janata Party. Masjids and dargahs were destroyed across the state. Seventy-three Muslim religious places were torched in Ahmedabad alone, 55 in Sabarkantha, 22 in Vadodara.

The architects of Gujarat’s greatest shame were of two sorts. There were the coolheaded strategists, the conspirators, who plotted the carnage from behind the scenes. And there were the foot soldiers, the members of the saffron army, drugged on the vicious agenda of so-called Hindutva, who went out and looted, raped and killed. On occasion, the planners were also sometimes emboldened to go out and participate in the massacres.

Ahmedabad: Carnage Capital



In Naroda, Gulbarg, Kalupur and Dariyapur, murderous mobs armed to the teeth obeyed the Sangh Parivar’s every word

Muslims who had begged police to protect them the day before huddle in the wreckage of their burned out homes in Ahmedabad
Photo: Ami Vitale

THE MOST horrifying massacre of the Gujarat riots was the one at Naroda Gaon and Naroda Patiya localities in Ahmedabad. A local Bajrang Dal leader, Babu Bajrangi, was one of the main conspirators. He started planning the massacre soon after the news of the Sabarmati incident broke. Starting in the evening of February 27, firearms and inflammable material were collected; Bajrangi also formed a select team, drawn from the cadre of the VHP and the Bajrang Dal. Members of the Chhara community, a denotified criminal tribe, were also roped in. TEHELKA spoke to two of them, Suresh Richard and Prakash Rathod. Both believed, and were made to believe, that by killing Muslims they were doing a great service to Hinduism.

On February 28, 2002, Bajrangi marshalled a murderous mob through the narrow bylanes of Naroda Patiya and Naroda Gaon. Egging the mob on was also local BJP MLA Mayaben Kodnani, who is also a doctor. Both Richard and Rathod have been recorded on TEHELKA’s spycam saying that Kodnani drove around Naroda all through the day, urging the mob to hunt Muslims down and kill them. Kodnani’s trusted lieutenant, BJP member Bipin Panchal, was also present with his own small band of followers, armed to the teeth. All through the massacre, Bajrangi and VHP state general secretary Jaideep Patel were on the phone with each other. Bajrangi did not reveal whether Patel was also involved in the planning. However, he did say that the death toll was being communicated to Patel at regular intervals. Several survivors from Naroda Gaon have identified Patel as the leader of the Naroda mob.

At the end of the day the total “score” — as Bajrangi chose to term estimates of the number of Muslims killed — in Naroda was well over at least 200. This figure has not been acknowledged by the state government; officially, 105 people were killed at Naroda Patiya and Naroda Gaon. Naroda, however, was far from the only Ahmedabad locality to be turned into a mass incinerator. A few kilometres away, VHP leaders were leading a frenzied mob at Meghaninagar. The target was a housing society called Gulbarg, a building inhabited by Muslims.

TEHELKA stung three participants in the carnage — Mangilal Jain, Prahlad Raju and Madan Chawal — all three local petty traders and all three with cases against them for their part in the riots. They said they and other members of the mob had been led by VHP leaders Atul Vaid and Bharat Teli, both of whom were named as accused in the FIR but were subsequently cleared of all charges when the police filed the chargesheet. Chawal gave a graphic description of how he and his accomplices first hacked former Congress MP Ehsan Jafri apart limb from limb, and then made a heap of his body parts, which they set on fire.

The official death toll of the Gulbarg massacre stood at 39, but the accused told TEHELKA that the actual number of those killed was much higher. Apart from the housing society’s residents, the dead also included Muslims who lived in nearby slums who had taken shelter in the building. TEHELKA also spoke to VHP leaders Rajendra Vyas and Ramesh Dave, who planned attacks on Muslims in Kalupur and Dariyapur, among Ahmedabad’s most communally sensitive areas. Ahmedabad city VHP president Rajendra Vyas, who was also in charge of the ill-fated Sabarmati Express, said that on the day of the fire on the train that killed 59 karsevaks, he had told the VHP cadre that “the Muslims had played a one-day match and given us a target of 60 runs. We shall now have to play a test match and we won’t stop until we score 600.”

Vyas, who lives in Kalupur, was recorded on the TEHELKA camera stating that he himself had shot dead five Muslims and had burned down nine Muslim houses. Ramesh Dave was the VHP’s point man in Dariyapur. He said he and his fellow planners had targeted and killed Muslims who had been in their sights for over 20 years — “chun-chun ke maara is baar (we specifically hunted them down)”. Dave also claimed that along with a friend, he had arranged for about 10 small firearms.

Vadodara: Charred City

THOUGH NOTHING could be compared to the violence unleashed in Ahmedabad, Muslims in Vadodara — the second largest city in Gujarat — were also assaulted in a phased manner. The first round, which started on February 27 itself, lasted until March 2, with the worst incident taking place on March 1, when 14 persons were burnt alive at the Best Bakery in Hanuman Tekri. Thereafter there was violence between March 15-20 and, following this, between April 25-May 2, with some incidents taking place in the intervening period, especially on March 25.

Almost every major Muslim locality of the city was attacked. Kisanwadi, Sama, Ashabiwi Chawl, Madhavpur II, Makkarpura, Audhootnagar, Raghovpura, Noor Park, Karelibagh, Gotri village, Hajimiyan ka Sara, Hanuman Tekri, Roshannagar, Panigate, Taiwada and Macchipith were among the areas where Hindu mobs went on a rampage. Hundreds of Muslim homes and businesses were looted and torched. In Sama, a relatively new part of Vadodara with a predominantly Hindu population, a mob of around 20 people attacked the residence of Prof JS Bandukwala, a professor of physics at the Maharaja Sayajirao University (MSU) and a respected figure in Vadodara, on the morning of February 28. The mob left after Prof Bandukwala and his daughter managed to take shelter in their Hindu neighbour’s house.

However, on the following day, March 1, a larger mob, armed with gas cylinders among other weaponry, launched a second assault and succeeded in torching Bandukwala’s house. The homes of two other prominent Muslim bureaucrats in the area were burned down. TEHELKA stung a rioter, Dhimant Bhatt, who was in the mob that torched these three homes. Bhatt is an accountant by profession — he is the chief accountant and auditor of MSU — but his real vocation is to inflict damage on Muslims.

Besides being a university employee, he also works as a personal assistant to the current Vadodara BJP MP Jayaben Thakkar. Bhatt revealed that on the night of the Sabarmati Express incident, a meeting was convened of Vadodara’s top BJP, RSS, VHP, Bajrang Dal and ABVP functionaries. Bhatt, who is also an RSS member, was present at the meeting, which is where, he says, a strategy of attacking Muslims was outlined. A plan for providing legal assistance to Hindus who may face legal action after the riots was also chalked out at the same meeting.

TEHELKA met another Vadodara BJP leader, Deepak Shah, who not only corroborated what Bhatt told us but also gave the name of the farmhouse where the meeting took place — Narmada Farmhouse. Shah, who is also a member of the Syndicate of the MSU, also corroborated what Babu Bajrangi had boasted of in Ahmedabad — that saffron organizations used lower-caste Hindus for carrying out anti-Muslim attacks.